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Then visit the monuments of modern history, such as the launch sites at Baikonur. After inspect underground mosques and chalk mountains in the Atyrau region, mausoleums eastern lords, to feel a spiritual connection to the sacred for all Turks a grave Korkyt-ata, to make a pilgrimage to the mausoleum of Ahmed Iassaui. You can compare your feelings down in the deep canyons and climbing peaks, meet shepherds and hereditary artisans, whose life did not change the century. Those who wish to try the romance of the past, can, riding horses or camels, to go through the mountains, deserts and steppes.
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
RESEARCH BACKGROUND 7
COUNTRY BACKGROUND 8
AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THIS RESEARCH 9
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 12
RATIONALE FOR THE PROPOSAL STUDY 12
DISSERTATION STRUCTURE 13
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 15
Analyze of present Kazakhstan’s position 19
Organization and Specific performance of a small hotel
2.3.2 General terms and requirements for the organization of small hotels, motels, boarding houses. 20
2.4 FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE HOTEL BUSINESS. 22
2.4.1 Administrative roles in the management systems. 24
2.4.2 Features of management in the hotel industry. 27 2.4.3 Organizational function. 28
2.4.4 Monitoring functions. 29
2.4.5 Management style of the managers 31
2.4.6 The organizational structure of the hotel enterprise
2.5 BRAND AWARENESS OF THE HOTEL 33
Brаnd recоgnitiоn 34
Types of brаnd аwаreness 35
2.6 EFFECTIVENESS OF MANAGEMENT 36
Case study hotel complex "Kumbel"
CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 41
3.1.1 The principles of the organizational structure of the hotel enterprise
RESEARCH STRATEGY 42
DATA ANALYSIS 43
CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDING 44
INTERVIEW RESULTS (Qualitative Analysis)
QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS (Quantitative Analysis)
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION, AND LIMITATION 45
LINKING RESEARCH FINDINGS WITH RESEARCH QUESTIONS, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES 47
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HOTEL INDUSTRY IN TERM
OF EFFECTIVE STRATEGY 48
5.4 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 49
- Telephone communication;
- Natural light (at least one window in each room, a room);
- In the corridors - natural and artificial lighting.
9. All electric, gas, ventilation, water supply, sewerage equipment should be installed and operated in accordance with the technical operation of hotels and their equipment.
10. Capacity and number of floors of the building have to depend on the functional purpose of a small hotel, motel, pension mode of operation and location.
11. In small hotels, motels, boarding houses must respect the rules and regulations established by the state sanitary-epidemiological surveillance.
12. To streamline and simplify workflow, small hotels, motels, boarding houses should use in their practice should use following instruction "On the order of documents in the provision of hotel services and blank forms of primary accounting documents."
13. Catering included in the structure of small hotels, motels, boarding houses are guided in their work force documents regulating their activity.
2.4 FEATURES AND MANAGEMENT ISSUES IN THE HOTEL BUSINESS.
RESEARCH ON MANAGEMENT IN HOTEL INDUSTRY
Reforming economic management as it has developed in our country has the prerequisites for the transition to a model of social market regulated by the state, the construction of which is linked to increased levels of integrity management tools, using all management practices.
Modern business hotel services, like any other business, involves a significant increase in the role of management and value-engineering equipment, hotel equipment, increasing competition there is an urgent need for such a business organization, which would guarantee a responsible attitude of every employee of the company, active and effective participation in its cases of all employees. Therefore, in developed countries the art of management is highly valued, quoted, and of course, accordingly, highly paid.
Thus, there are three areas of hospitality management, widely spread in Almaty.
First - it is aimed at filling hotels and provide more of their own hotel functions, such hotels was 22% of their total number.
The second direction - this hotel with a strong diversified management that allows more to provide services regardless of whether they are directly or indirectly relate directly to the occupancy of the hotel. At the beginning of 2003 was 56%.
The third area - is an implicit control, when it is impossible to distinguish between explicit and implicit supporters control with alignment to the occupancy or diversification in the current conditions of hotel business. Considering all three directions in the management of the dynamics of their development in 2002-2003.You can see the strengthening of the position of adherents’ diversification management.
2.4.1. Administrative roles in the management systems.
The work of many managers has common characteristics. Although the general aspects of management are difficult reviewed, administrative activity is essentially not much different from the non management. A common feature is the performance management work supervisor roles. All managers managerial hierarchy of the organization, and this is what determines their official conduct, causes them to behave in a certain way to take the post (role) the head does not affect its content, although as a person may have a different fill this role.
American theorist in the field of management Henry Mintzberg identifies ten roles, which, depending on the levels of government take on the leaders of various degrees. H. Mintzberg divides them into three broad classes:
1. Interpersonal roles.
2 Informational role.
3. Roles in decision-making.
All three classes are interdependent and interact to create a whole as a result, formed the scope and content of the manager, no matter what the nature was of the organization in which one works. Interpersonal roles include the scope of interaction with people manager.
They are based on his authority in the organization and contribute to the fact that the manager is drained by multiple information, possessing which he on the one hand, can act as information and, on the other - as a center of information processing. Performing interpersonal role, the manager is sufficiently trained to carry out the role of decision-making, which can have a direct influence on the production process and the achievement of organizational goals.
The classification of supervisor’ roles on Mr. Mintzberg give an idea of the work that the manager does. This classification is complemented by a number of functions, which necessarily does any manager in any organization. These functions include: planning, organization, motivation and control.
2.4.2 Features of management in the hotel industry.
According to the explanatory dictionary of Webster, hospitality – is this area of entrepreneurship consisting of these types of services, which are based on the principles of hospitality characterized by generosity and friendliness to guests. Consequently, the hospitality industry can be considered as a variety of forms of business specializing in the market related to the reception and guest services.
There are four basic functions of management in the hotel industry.
Travel management system should be based on the strategic (projected into the future) vision and foresight. Based on the vision (a sort of "drawings" that show us in the future), is the leading idea management, policy of the Company, which represents the common goals and norms of relations that ensure the viability and development of the structure. Policy-making enterprises is carried out often at the highest management level.
•Participation in the development goals established for business development in the regions of the country.
• Current analysis of the competitive - the ability to place.
• Develop competitive strategy - the ability of the region and its special position.
Under the business planning means the systematic, information processed process of qualitative, quantitative and temporal definition of future goals, means and methods of formation and management of the enterprise in the planning process for deciding what should be the goals of organization and that its members have to do to achieve these purposes.
The planning process is carried out according to the level of the organization.
Strategic planning (high level). Main task of planning at this level is to determine how the organization will conduct themselves in their market niche.
At the middle level of management - concerned for tactical planning, define milestones for achieving the strategic goals and objectives.
Tactical planning in essence is similar to the strategic. Ideas are born in strategic planning.
The third level is –operational planning - performance standards, job description. This is a system in which everyone is focusing on the achievement of common goals and the main organization.
With the plan to some extent solved the problem of uncertainty in the organization. Planning helps managers to better deal with this problem more effectively respond to it.
2.4.3 Organizational function.
Management function of the organization provides the ordering of technical, economic, social - psychological and legal aspects of the activities of any tourist enterprise (organization). It is aimed at regulating the activities of managers and performers.
From an economic point of view, organizational activity leads to high performance of the company. In terms of personnel management, it conveys the meaning of work and distributes it to artists.
Manager assigns responsibilities and establishes liability. That is, we are talking about the establishment of permanent and temporary relationships between all departments of the Company, certain of the order and the conditions of its operation. It is the process of uniting people and resources to achieve company goals. The organization as a function of control creates a working structure, the main component of which people speak. The process of organization structures and forms the basis of unit size of the company and its goals.
Senior leaders do not run more than a dozen subordinates, while lower-level managers may control a much larger number of staff. In this regard, there are two important factors that determine the span of control (number of employees who can effectively manage one manager) - time and frequency, that is, how long the manager needs to spend with each person and how often to do so. This criterion depends on the ability of managers to communicate with employees, complexity of tasks, interest and involvement in the work process.
Thus, the organization of the process is - the second function of management. Of the many meanings of the term "organization" in the sense of the administrative function is most often used two definitions:
1. Organization - the structure of the system in the form of relationships, rights, objectives, roles, activities, and other factors that occur when people are united by joint effort.
2. Organization - a process by which a structure is created and saved the company.
Motivation as a control functions in management.
In considering the question of management is focused on two aspects of the problem: motivation (motivation) travel and motivation of labor relations.
Motivation labor aggregate incentives staff in active employment, that is, after the arrangements manager must ensure the successful implementation of work.
Management practice confirms that high performance is the reason for the complete satisfaction, rather than a consequence of it. Due to the fact that there are different ways of motivation, the manager must:
1. Establish a set of criteria that have the most impact on the behavior of the employee.
2. Create an atmosphere conducive to motivating workers.
3. Actively communicate with their employees, because the feedback provides a strong foundation for motivation.
2.4.4 Monitoring functions.
Control - the process of comparing (matching) actually achieved results with planned. In monitoring the manager rather than giving orders to employees, evaluates how much the success of the implementation of plans and organizations identified the needs of internal and external environment.
Monitoring function in the classical management - the kind of management, the organization through which you can keep on the right (correct) way, by comparing its performance with established standards. The monitoring function is not the end point of the process of management.
High-level managers spend most of their time is spent on the implementation of planning and control. Managers also lower (linear), employs more staffing and work organization. Managers at all levels to assess the impact of two main criteria: the ability to achieve the desired result and efficiency, to achieve this result with the lowest cost.
There is no perfect model, and unified management, but all decisions arising from the need to satisfy the needs of customers rely on strictly checked in managerial hierarchy. For each business, management is unique. There are only general rules and features that are generally used by all. Under current conditions, the control system should be simple and flexible enough to be competitive.
There are five basic operations in the work of managers which they do in the hospitality industry:
1. Manager sets target certain specific tasks in each group goals, make them effective through messages to other employees (hotel, restaurant, travel agency), whose work is essential to achieve these goals.
2. Manager performs organizational function, analyzing the activities and make decisions necessary to achieve the objectives. It groups in the organizational structure and selects staff for their performance.
3. Manager performs the function assessment analysis and interpretation of results of each employee's company.
4. The manager is in constant communication in the team, forget about techniques of motivation.
5. Manager promotes the growth of people, including him.
Responsibility for decision-making is shared by top management. Departments are functional units, each of which uses its own specific technology, but instead, they have one common goal - customer satisfaction. The larger the enterprise, the more extensive management structure it has, since there exist intermediate links, the main function of which is to control.
Common decisions of strategic character are taken by owners of the company or a CEO. The General Director is the intermediary between the owners and management personnel on the one hand and on the other hospitality businesses. This function can only be described as a function of transfer of common tasks to specific management decisions. In addition, the General Director is solving problems related to common areas of its activity, including the implementation of financial policies. Top management decides which system to use settlements with clients in the enterprise. But some of these questions can be sent to the expansion of the lower control if the CEO put too many powers and responsibilities.
Also in the large hotel companies in addition to senior management could be used an organizational form, as an executive committee, which consists of the heads of the main functional units (services) of the hotel. It consists of the heads of such areas as accommodation, food, marketing (commercial service), administrative - a chore. Each of the leaders in these areas is responsible for addressing the objectives.
Middle managers (heads of departments) have the authority to make operational decisions within their units.
Diagnostic studies typological features that affect the management style
Management by means of:
1. Senior managers - owners of the company, the CEO and his deputy (General Manager).
2. General Manager - is an intermediary between owners and management personnel on the one hand and the other guests. This function can only be described as a function of transfer of common staging tasks will be active in the specific management decisions.
3. The management structure includes the Deputy Director General (General Manager), which is at the operational decision-making, are constantly in the company.
4. Heads of departments (and their assistants) who have the power to make operational decisions within their units.
Management of Suites:
• Manager reception service (Front Office)
• Manager messenger services
• Maid Service Manager (Housekeeping)
• Laundry Manager (Maintenance)
• Manager of Engineering Services
• Security Service Manager (Security)
Manager, Food and Beverage:
• Manager Service catering
• Manager banquet
• Replacement Cook.
• Manager of the Commercial Service
• Manager of Business-Center
• Regional and commercial managers.
Manager of Financial Services:
• Chief Accountant
• Manager HR (Human Resource)
Fitness Center Manager
The management style of managers of the hotel industry does not involve direct proportion to their typological characteristics. It is in hospitality management is manifested in different ways. Such manifestations are not dependent on the personality of the manager typological features.
2.4.5 Management style of the managers
Complete definition of leadership style - a relatively stable system of modes and forms of practice manager.
All definitions of management styles are reduced to a set of characteristics for a manager to devices and methods for control problem, that is style - this system is continuously applied management practices the style and method of leadership exists in a certain unity. Style is a form of implementing management techniques adopted by that manager in accordance with his personal, subjective - psychological characteristics. Each of the established methods of management is adequate specific style of management. Each method for its implementation needs to be individuals with well-defined characteristics. In addition the control method is more agile and responsive to new needs in the field of management decisions than management style.
Style, as a phenomenon of the production order, to some extent, behind the development and improvement of management practices, and in connection with this may be a conflict with him. That is, due to certain autonomy of management style as a reflection of outdated management techniques can bring them with new, more progressive elements.
Manager with a characteristic style of management and its activities use different methods of management of economic, organizational - administrative (managerial), social - psychological.
Hospitality Management, if we consider the problem in general, has a clear management structure, it is carried out using the four basic functions, and the manager (manager) company (hotel), who runs this company:
1. Planning - the foundation for future business. Development of policies, goals, competitive analysis – is the ability in the market, the strategy of the organization.
2. Organization - ensuring an orderly economic, social - psychological, legal and technical aspect of the hotel or organization.
3. Motivation. For the management of the hotel industry, this feature is very important - it's a trip motives and motivation of labor relations.
4. Accounting and control - of progress and goals with the target.
The management style of managers of the hotel industry does not involve direct proportion to their typological characteristics. It is in hospitality management is manifested in different ways.
2.4.6 The organizational structure of the hotel enterprise
The organizational structure of the hotel enterprise - is the administrative hierarchy of its management. Generally, it covers: hotel owner, general manager, deputy general manager, director of rooms, reception services director, head of housekeeping, laundry director, chief engineer and head of security, director of nutrition, chef, restaurant director, removable cook, regional sales executive, director of financial services, the chief accountant, cashier, personnel managers, business services manager, director of maintenance.
To achieve the goals and objectives of the companies of the hospitality industry to be developed final organizational structure, and work in it should be divided among all employees. Also the structure needed for the efficient conversion of key functions of employees to determine their accountability, diligent effort on the part of staff. Proper development of the organizational structure - it is the main indicator of effective organizational transformation. The organizational structure of the companies of the hospitality industry is determined not only by its economic efficiency, but also a moral and work satisfaction of staff.
Managers need to determine the impact of the organizational structure and methods of work on the behavior and activities of the employees. The structure is also the main component of an effective corporate strategy. The organizational structure is closely linked process management and human behavior in the workplace. In the development of the organizational structure of the specialists are repelled from the objective functions and functional elements of the organization.
The first - this is the main function of the organization, which provides a production process focused on the final product, including the creation of a product, product offerings, marketing and finance organizations. The functional elements are also a significant part of the management process. These are the functions or activities that do not focus on the end products and the support of the objective function and include: administrative support, planning, quality control, etc. The functional elements include security, engineering, accounting, etc. The development of organizational structure plays an important role and the number of levels in the hierarchy of the company, when the commanding stage line up a vertical row and construct a scheme of relationships between managers and subordinates.
Under this scheme, every member of staff should know their place in the organizational structure, and for the effective management requires a clear definition of responsibilities.
However, if possible you should try to reduce the number of hierarchical levels. Otherwise, it could negatively affect the system linkages and have a negative moral influence.
As mentioned above, depending on the job, the staff is divided into the following services:
• Management service rooms and apartments (reception, maid service, porter service, inspector of housekeeping, security, etc.);
• Administrative Service (Secretariat, the finance, personnel service, fire safety inspectors and safety, etc.);
• catering service (kitchen, restaurant, Banqueting service, the service restaurant workers, etc.);
• Engineering and technical services (chief engineer, service maintenance, communication service, electrician, plumber, etc.);
• Support services (laundry, linen, cleaning service, etc.);
• Additional services.
Now, look closer at the functions of each of the services and, based on these, calculate staffing requirements.
In the function of reception included booking, registration, distribution of rooms, providing guests a variety of information services, fees for accommodation and maintenance of the necessary documentation. It is the responsibility of the service also includes the introduction and maintenance of a database providing information about guests and room conditions.
Guest service during their stay is reduced to extend the length of stay, transfer guests from one room to another (where applicable), payment for accommodation, arrange for the provision of additional services to the customer.
Reception is also implementing a collection of applications and hotel reservation, that is, serving potential customers.
- Agent for acceptance and accommodate guests (manager on duty) to be signed by guests accommodation, receiving payment and invoice the customer is responsible for providing information to guests and functional service hotel, and for the collection, filing and record-keeping, in addition, responsible for issuing keys, hotel reservation with maintenance of appropriate records and the telephone operator, to communicate with long-distance and international telephone exchanges, telephone records the presence of the hotel customers, monitors their payment, and also provides services to wake up, at the request of the client. The main objectives and strategies throughout the hotel - is to provide guests the highest quality of services, and increasing employment rates hotels. As for the strategies to achieve these goals, it is, for example, improving the presentation of advertising business - a motel, reducing time desk. Employees of this service should be very attentive and correct.
Room service operation and service - provides accommodation in both rooms, maintains the necessary sanitary condition of the rooms and the comfort level in a residential area, has a personal services to tourists. The service is headed by the Deputy General Manager (Director) Hotels - Hotel Manager. In high-rise, or consisting of several buildings of hotel maids and other staff are usually arranged on the floors and chassis.
The Service consists of providing linens, some hotels - laundries, workshops, public services, etc. This is the same service group that organizes the active leisure, recreational activities, sports, exercise, go out on nature hikes or multi-day - depending on the travel program and wishes of the hotel guests. Sometimes this group is isolated in a separate unit. At its head stood and fitness instructor tourist - recreation activities.