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Registration of brochures
Tour Operators are Tourism Companies engaged in a
tour of contracts with service providers to meet the needs of tourists. Tour
operator is a producer of the tour package. He develops itineraries and
package tours, ensures their functioning, organizing advertising, expects
prices for tours to these routes, sells tours directly to travelers
or through travel agencies.
Tour operator offers tourists a variety of choices of tourist services and simplifies the order of service in other cities and areas, by taking these functions themselves.
Tour operators carry a special role in the tourism industry. They acquire tourist products (seats on airplanes, hotel rooms), a package of tourist services and sell them directly or indirectly to different tourists in order to make profit. Tour operators may sell tourist services separately. This is done either for reasons of profit, or as needed.
In the first case, when the tour operator forms a packet, it acts as a producer of tourist products. In the second case, when he sells the services separately, it acts as a wholesale dealer of tourist services. This can be done if the tour operator buys from the producer more tourist services than is necessary for the formation of a tourist package. In addition, today there are specialized wholesale tour operators, having as a result of bulk purchasing of services special discounted rates on hotels and other service providers. This feature is also a tour operator, in its ability to insure against changes in prices for services necessary to develop tourism packages affordable for tourists. Prices at the wholesale tour operators are always lower than retail prices than hotels.
Yet tour operators should be regarded as producers of new products and not as wholesalers a wide range of travel products. It is quite legitimate, since the main activity of tour operators is to create tour packages.
Sometimes, as already mentioned, they can sell the services separately. This additional activity or objective is a necessary step in the market. For example, tour operators are selling seats on flights (charter or regular, book a flight or as an agent) to fill the required number of seats, bought out their quota of subsidized prices. Classification of tour operators are outgoings tour operators, incomings tour operators and in sidings tour operators.
Main function of tour operations companies is selling tour packages wholesale to travel agencies or sometimes direct to the public.
Outgoings specialize in develo
Incomings with outgoings provi
Tour operators are selling mass-
Function of promotion the tourist product is the most important form of marketing activity tour operator. In order to maximize the profitability of tourist projects (particularly new or modified) tour operator appears most interested in distributing all kinds of information about it (the route, the proposed funds transfers, accommodation, leisure activities, price range of proposals, working conditions, authorized agencies and the acquisition of the tour) side, applying in practice the largest possible number of tools of advertising, sales promotion, PR. In many respects thanks to the marketing activities of tour operators, other stakeholders of the tourist market (tourists, agents, and rival operators, and providers of tourist services, authorities ...) becomes aware of the dynamics of changes in market conditions of the tourist market (the price range of tours, forms of cooperation, the introduction of new technology sales , promotion). Operators, occupying a leading position in the travel market in the region, provide a solid cash flow to the budgets of these regions or states due to tax levies, including incoming operators - foreign exchange, emerging from the savings of citizens as a native, and other states.
In January 18, 2007 in Moscow, the largest tour operators
decided to establish associations of tour operators - a public organization,
which includes the company's tour operators, for whom the development
of the tourist market and interest in common standards for the industry
were the fundamental principles of work. ATOR includes about 50 companies, tour operators
from different regions of Russia, uniting about 70% of the total tourist
flow of the country. All members of the ATOR are included in the uniform
federal register of tour operators of Russia and have an insurance guarantee.
Everybody can always review the most current news and news of tourism
of member companies ATOR on the website. Since 2009 it is Associate Member of the World Tourism
Large tour operators are Tez tour, Natali tours, Thomas Cook, Rewe, TUI, Kuoni, Club Medetarian, American Express, Raider.
We consider 3 biggest tour operators.
Thomson Holidays is a UK based travel operator and part of TUI Travel PLC. The company (originally named Thomson Tour Operations, and renamed in 1997) was founded as part of the Thomson Travel Group in 1965 following the acquisition of three package holiday travel agencies and the airline Britannia Airways by Roy Thomson. The Thomson Travel Group was owned by the Thomson Corporation of Canada until it was floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1998. Thomson UK is headquartered in Lurton, England. After the intense price-cutting rivalries of the early 1970s, particularly for the Clarkson’s Travel Group Thomson restructured the company and in 1972 acquired Luann Poly, the largest chain of travel agents in the United Kingdom. The name Luann Poly was kept until 2004, when TUI UK rebranded as Thomson Holidays in order to create a "power brand". The company insisted that there were no plans to rebrand Luann Poly. The company is now taking more of their business to the web but still hold a big stake in the high street.
Thomson Travel Group was floated on the London Stock Exchange in May 1998 with a valuation of £1.7 billion. In 2000, TTG was acquired by Preussag AG, an industrial and transportation conglomerate. Preussag was renamed TUI AG on July 1, 2002 and Thomson Travel became TUI UK. Thomson Holidays, Thomson Ski and Thomson Lakes and Britannia Airways (rebranded Thomson fly, now Thomson Airways after the merger with First Choice Airways) are now subsidiaries of that group, part of TUI Travel PLC.
They were sponsors of Tottenham Hotspur F.C. from 2002-2006.
In 1981 Thomson Holidays were the first recorded users of Business-to-Business online shopping.
Thomson Holidays also operates its own cruise line, Thomson Cruises, that offers low-price cruises around Europe with ships from Louis Cruise Lines and Holland America Line. The company had initially entered the cruise market in 1973, but due to rising fuel costs the venture was terminated in 1976. In 1995, Thomson restarted their cruise line after their competitor Air tours had made a successful entry in the cruise business under their Sun Cruises brand.
MS Island Escape will be added to the Thomson fleet in April 2009, as a result of parent company TUI's acquisition of Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd.'s share in Island Cruises that took place in 2008.
All Union Joint Stock Company "Intourist"
was founded on April 1929. During the Soviet period, the company covered
almost all areas of operations of hospitality and tourism and was the
leader of the domestic tourist market in areas like entrance (admission
of aliens in the USSR) and outbound (travel of Soviet citizens abroad),
tourism. Annually through “Intourist” in the Soviet Union came to
millions of foreign visitors, and our fellow citizens have a unique
opportunity to rest not only on the Soviet, and foreign resorts.
“Intourist” owned 450 hotels in the territory of the USSR, four hotels in the Caribbean, two in London, one in Paris and one in Cuba, 20 own aircraft, four cruise ships, three trains of high comfort and restaurant facilities for 85 thousand places in a one-time service. In the late 80's Intourist provided entry into the country more than 2 million foreigners a year, the company's revenues exceeded $ 700 million.
After the disintegration of the Union of the tourist market the situation has changed dramatically: if earlier "Intourist" was in fact a monopoly, the result of the restructuring was many travel agencies that specialized and retreated on tourism. Particularly the result was the competition in outbound tourism, and so formed in the Soviet economy, the company did not have time to adapt to rapidly changing market requirements. "Intourist" conceded a leading position in outbound tourism market to new, more mobile, companies, lost part of its assets, and managed to keep the lead only in the sphere of incoming tourism.
In July 1994 “Intourist” has passed under the control of System (now it belongs her company's 66,203%, 25,036% owned Property Department of Moscow, 8,747% - from GAO "Moscow").
In 2005, the company's shareholders decided to return the “Intourist” leadership positions in all segments of the tourist market. In April 2005 the President of the company was Alexander Arutyunov. Head of new team of executives decided to turn the "Intourist" in the largest operator of mass tourism and to increase the maximum annual sales of the company. "We initially positioned Intourist as a conveyor belt for the production of hospitality services around the globe" - says AB Arutyunov. They started to form a group of companies that would represent the full range of parts business "Tourism and hospitality."
As part of this strategy, “Intourist” has implemented several major investment projects. In 2006 the company acquired a controlling stake in two leading travel agencies specializing in outbound tourism: "Skyway" on the Moscow tourist market and the Riviera in Saint-Petersburg. In addition, the "Intourist" has made a deal to acquire a number of hotel assets - hotel "Cosmos" and "Beijing" in Moscow, Savoy Wasted Hotel in Karlovy Vary (Czech Republic), took a lease / management of hotels in Nizhny Novgorod, Petrozavodsk, etc. .
Also in 2006, "Intourist" has begun restructuring its ever growing assets, and now he is a vertically-integrated tourist holding company consisting of a management company and the four divisions - tour operating, retail, hospitality and transportation services."Intourist" seeks, like other world's largest operators of the tourist market, to monitor all the links in the value chain of their business. Currently, under the supervision of the holding are all elements of this chain - tour operators, taking the company, the organizers of charter flights, hotels (owned or under management) and sales offices.
According to the results of the 2006, 2007 and 2008 group of companies "Intourist" tops the list "of tourist companies of Russia", compiled by the publishing house "Kommersant" together with the information agency "Tourist Information".
Effective implementation of the strategy of the Group of companies "Intourist" could neutralize the risks and increase profits by constantly improving the quality of services.
"Intourist" Today is a vertically-integrated tourist holding, which consists of a management company, “Intourist” and its three business divisions - tour operating (inbound, outbound, domestic tourism, corporate tourism, VIP-service), hospitality (hotel management in Russia and abroad), retail sales of tourist products (the network of tourist agencies in Moscow, Russian regions and CIS countries).
Geography of presence is 80 regions of Russia. The company cooperates with 7000 partners in 168 countries. Now “Intourist” deals business with Thomas Cook.
"Natalie Tours" was founded in April 1992.
In 2009 the company has served 405 thousand people and its turnover reached 485 million dollars, "Natali Tours" is in constant development, and regularly adds to its range of new directions. Thus, innovations in 2009 were Cuba, Egypt, and in 2010 the company started selling tours to Austria and Brazil.
"Natali Tours" is a diversified tour operator company that specializes in public recreation, but also takes into account the individual needs of each guest. Activities - Spain, Greece, Cyprus, Italy, Austria, Turkey, Thailand, Andorra, United Arab Emirates, Egypt, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Brazil, and cruises. "Natalie Tours" has been repeatedly recognized leader in sending Russian tourists to Europe. In addition, the company operates a special department for servicing corporate clients are Department of Business Tourism (MICE), whose clients during this time were many large companies (Sharp, Gideon Richter, Henkel, etc.)
Mission of "Natalie Tours" promotes the development of civilized market of tourist services in Russia, providing affordable holidays, the corresponding best international standards. "Natalie Tours" has a good reputation in the market and always conducts business in accordance with the concepts of professional pride.
Strengthening market leadership in outbound tourism is realized by providing guaranteed high quality service at all stages of the tour and building long term relationships with target customers - tourists mass directions, preferring service and comfort.
"Natali Tours" is known in the market for its conceptual tours, attracting the attention of large numbers of customers. The most popular tour, "Adults and children," first appeared in 2007, and since 2008, offering in Spain, Greece and Cyprus. As the basis of game software for children aged 6 to 12 years was selected a pirate theme. And for children from 2 to 5 years is children’s club "Zebra."
The central office employs about 400 employees. The company has more retail offices in Moscow and representative offices in Yekaterinburg, St. Petersburg, Samara and the Minsk. In 2009, "Natali Tours" launched her own retail project on the basis of franchising. At the moment, under the brand name of the company are 40 travel agencies, 11 of them in Moscow and 29 regions. The project plans to develop further.
The company also collaborates with agencies both directly and through authorized agencies, which have almost all major Russian cities. Total in Russia and CIS countries, there are about 2000 sales offices where you can buy the product, "Natali Tours".
Tourism, like other sectors of the world economy is in recession, resulting in a decrease in the rate of increase in tourist flows, as well as the achievement of a certain market saturation of the world community. In 2010, the development of the Russian tourist market demonstrated next trends. As before the Russian market is subject to certain seasons. Peak tourist flows accounted for spring-summer period, but begins to be traced over a wide coverage of seasons due to sport tourism (skiing, golf) and educational tours to European countries. Anonym factor is the presence in the region, visiting airports receiving direct flights from Russia. Since early 2010, several dropped the popularity of "burning" rounds, as pre-booking tours becomes the basis for savings on air and rail tickets. According to experts, this trend will continue. Everything else lately tourists prefer companies and destinations with cheap air travel. The next characteristic point is a steady decline in the prices of accommodation in four-, five-star hotels, which recently faced a huge problem of insufficient numbers of fullness. Luxury hotels in the last year have increasingly resorted to a system of providing all kinds of discounts. Positive trend in 2009-2010 is the development of companies and new routes and new tourism brand, which is proof of a new approach in shaping the tourism product. If we talk about the most popular destinations and routes chosen by the Russian tourists, it remains the most popular beach holiday in Spain and Italy. Most of the tourists choose a seaside retreat, coupled with effortless cognitive excursions. The number of charter flights from Moscow to Barcelona, Malaga, Rimini, Pisa, on Majorca and Sardinia. The number of charter flights to some of these areas has increased by 50 percent. Experts believe that the demand for these tours will rise in 2011 could reach crisis level. Another popular format, becoming the once popular tours "plus the Czech Republic, Hungary", "Poland - Germany - France, Prague, plus Paris, plus Italy, France, as well as trips to spa resorts Czech Republic. The reason for the popularity of tours of several countries is the possibility of the tourists' grasp the immensity "in a short time. According to forecasts of the WTO (World Tourism Organization) in 2010 increased the tourist flow will be from three to four percent. Summarizing, we can say that in the projections of the dynamics of the Russian tourist market has to consider many different factors, not excluding the possibility of new socio-economic and political turmoil.
The next trend in the tourism and tour operating industries is increased tourists’ demand for river and sea cruises
In the 80 years of the last century, the cruise market
is experiencing a strong recession.
Only from the mid-90 began a steady growth at 6-7% per year. For ten years the popularity has changed the attitude of tourists from around the world to cruise.
Until now, the bulk of clients of cruise companies are Americans, but every year cruises are buying an increasing number of Britons, Germans, Italians, Spaniards and Scandinavians.
Average prices of cruises have fallen; their status has changed in 10 years and has already started to grow cruises in Europe itself. Appear more and more new routes along the coasts of Italy and Spain, Britain, Sweden and Norway.
Some experts believe that the Caribbean has become closely, in addition, there is winter there is almost no alternative. Many of the islands just did not have the infrastructure able to take 5,000 passengers super-ship class «post-Panama», therefore in the Caribbean go to smaller ships, the status of this cruise is not the same, yesterday, and the cruise business is looking for new markets.
Becoming increasingly popular Antarctic cruises, many fans gather traditional weeks of transitions across the oceans and even round the world trip.
In general, the global market cruises are not such a big - the cumulative number of beds on cruise ships, equal to the number of beds in the hotels of Las Vegas.
In addition, the cruise business is very sensitive. Another serious terrorist attack or a slowing U.S. economy could quickly change the picture. Even now, some bad news such as running aground, damaging the ship or an epidemic on board cruise ships affect not only affected the company, but throughout the cruise industry.
In recent years not only the size increased but also the costs of the giant ships.
For example, payment of the entrance to the harbor of Stockholm is SEK 1.48 per ton displacement vessel.
To ship Liberty of the Seas, Launched May 19, 2007, one-day entry into the harbor of Stockholm will cost 238,000 Euros (about 25,000 Euros). Enlargement of the ships is not only positive aspects for tourists in the form of additional space and expanded infrastructure entertainment on board. Aircraft become crowded in places of parking. Require special efforts to a few thousand cruise tourists have enjoyed the tour, rather than waiting in line at the pier, as sometimes they do not have 80 buses
Prices for cruises are strongly fluctuate depending on the season and class. Luxury cruises are an average of 500 Euros per night. Cruises on large ships are cheaper and cost about 70-100 euro per day depending on the charter to the place of departure. But there are cheaper cruises. On the Mediterranean market in the segment of cheap cruises it is the most popular week-long trip the British firm Thomson, which cost customers in the 40-70 euro per day.
In general, the global market cruise tourism is at the peak of its popularity over the last decade.
In place of the industrial era in which the basic
value was material wealth, it comes a post-industrial era, where the
main goal is to look and feel. Important factors influencing the development of
tourism began to develop transport and communications, increasing mobility,
urbanization, reduction of working time, the growth of social wealth.
The rapid strengthening of the financial and economic position of the tourism industry has meant that in many countries, tourism has become an important factor for regional development. Territorial administration bodies of different hierarchical levels, from the counties and districts to the federal authorities concerned about tourism development and areas that have valuable recreational resources. Tourism is regarded as a catalyst for the regional economy, which allows using not only the full range of recreational resources, but also the most efficient use of aggregate production and socio-cultural potential of the territory while maintaining the ecological and cultural diversity.
By some estimates, the world has more than 200 international
organizations, directly or indirectly connected with tourism. They are characterized by great variety, differing
from each other's status, forms, targets, range of tasks. They are all part of the overall system of international
organizations, the core of which is the United Nations (UN), the most
universal and representative coverage of its member countries. In the framework of the UN it have been developed
and adopted by the main international convention on the legal regulation
of international tourism. In 1963, Rome hosted the first UN Conference on Travel
and Tourism. It was attended by the delegation of 87 States -
UN member states, five UN agencies, 7 intergovernmental organizations
and 14 non-governmental international organizations.
Important influence on the pace and direction of development of world tourism market has the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), with 1 January 1995 transformed into the World Trade Organization (WTO). It regulates the tariff and trade policies of countries - participants of the WTO on the principles of multilateralism, foreign trade, application of the general preferential treatment, reduction of customs duties and removing other barriers to trade, reciprocal concessions. GATT - WTO affect international tourism as a form of foreign trade. Further liberalization of trade relations in the tourism sector contributed to the signing of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, expanding market access for services, including tourism.
Activities of many other international institutions also affect the tourism industry. Along with them there are the specialized international organizations to ensure stable and orderly development of world tourism. The work YV Dark, LR Dark gives the following groupings are:
- The world's international tourist organizations general;
- The world's international tourist organizations sectored nature;
- Regional and international tourism organizations general;
- Regional and international tourism organizations sectored nature;
- Specialized international tourism organizations;
- Special international tourism organizations.
Global international tourist organizations general determine priorities for tourism development in the world establish the basic principles of tourist activities and promote a constructive, based on mutual trust and cooperation between countries in the tourism sector. Central among them is the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), which was formed with the participation of UN-based International Union of Official Travel Organizations in 1975, this international inter-governmental organization in 2006 consisted of 150 states and 7 territories - regular and associate members, as well as nearly 300 affiliate members representing the tourism administration, tourism associations, the private sector - air carriers and other transportation companies, hotels and restaurants, tour operators and travel agencies, and institutions of vocational education and tourism, etc. The headquarters of the UNWTO are placed in Madrid (Spain).
On the UNWTO assigned responsibilities and functions
of the main governing body in tourism. The company "Wooden House" is building
solid foundations within the shortest period of its operation covers
all aspects of tourism. Creating UNWTO meant recognition of the economic,
social, cultural and political significance of international tourism. The main purpose of the UNWTO is to promote tourism
for economic growth and prosperity, peace and understanding between
nations, respect for and observance of civil rights and liberties.
UNWTO works along the following lines:
- Cooperation for Development. This program is aimed at ensuring sustainable development of nations worldwide, the solution to many economic and social problems of poor countries and regions through tourism. UNWTO collects and transmits accumulated over decades of experience in tourism activities to developing countries. It provides funding and attracts the world's leading experts in the implementation of tourism projects in developing countries. Together with the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), UNWTO launched the program "Sustainable tourism - a pledge to eradicate poverty (STEP);
- Development of human potential. Emphasizing the quality of tourism education is UNWTO initiator, leader and coordinator of the improvement of training for the tourism industry;
- The quality of tourist development. This program is the result of increased attention to economic aspects of tourism, trade, tourism services, and the problems of entrepreneurship in tourism. It includes three activities UNWTO: 1) assisting countries - its members - to develop and implement sound policies in the trade of tourist services on the principles of liberalism and in accordance with the basic provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services, 2) ensuring the safety of tourists, 3) introduction of uniform international standards of quality in tourism, taking into account national circumstances;
- Sustainable tourism development. UNWTO activities based on the principle of sustainability, i.e. promote such tourism development and management that benefit future generations. The organization produced a series of analytical reviews, and released a series of publications on various aspects (indicators, planning, and experience) for sustainable tourism development;
- Statistics and marketing research. The objectives are to study the UNWTO tourism market, collection, analysis and systematization of statistical information, forecasting the development of tourism in the world. The main efforts of WCO are aimed at creating a unified international system of reliable tourism statistics, the development of the "support account of tourism", which allows to comprehensively evaluate the economic contribution of tourism industry, the formation of the bank's statistics on the state of tourism in the countries and regions around the world. Studies give an idea of trends in the tourist market as a whole and its individual niches, allow short-and long-term forecasts involve questions the effectiveness of tourist offices;
- Communication and documentation. Appropriate department UNWTO aims to raise global awareness about the importance of tourism in modern life promote the work of the UNWTO in the media coverage of pre-and conducted in the field of tourism activities. Function of the source of information for its members and the international community UNWTO serves through an extensive program of publications, as well as a series of electronic products. UNWTO has booths at major international tourist exhibitions, including the Moscow International Travel and Tourism ".
Among the documents adopted by the UNWTO particular importance are the Manila Declaration on World Tourism (1980), Charter Tourism and Tourist Code (1985), the Hague Declaration of Tourism (1989), the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism (1999), Osaka Declaration on Tourism (1994), Osaka Millennium Declaration (2001).
Relationship with the UNWTO National Tourism Administration in the field through regional representatives, who work in the six tourism regions of the world: Europe, America, Asia-Pacific, Africa, South Asia and the Middle East. Together with the leaders of the tourism industry in the countries - members of the UNWTO the region they identify existing problems of tourism development and outline ways to address them, take part in the development of tourist projects, hold conferences and workshops. They represent the UNWTO in regional and national tourist promotion, to help establish contacts between the tourist offices and other government agencies. International transport of any goods since 1980, members of the UNWTO annually celebrate September 27 as World Tourism Day. Global international tourist organizations sectored nature combined companies by sector (industry) tourism industry. Such an organization created to identify areas and ways of developing a particular industry, cooperation between the enterprises - members of the organization, implement a uniform policy on matters of common interest, develop common industry standards and service quality standards, problem solving industry. To the world international tourism organizations sectored nature include the World Association of Tourist Agencies (VATA), World Federation of Tourist Agencies (FUAAV), International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IHRA), the International Automobile Federation (FIA), International Association of parks and recreation (IAAPA) etc.