Автор: Пользователь скрыл имя, 23 Июня 2013 в 02:29, курсовая работа
It could be argued that the digital revolution and the Internet changed all that— words, pictures, moving pictures, and interactivity are all just different kinds of digital media that have converged on the three screens of video: the television set, the personal computer, and the nearly ubiquitous mobile cell phone. The nature of the content has changed also. In addition to professionally produced material, usergenerated content populates YouTube, social networks, blogs, Wikipedia, Twitter, and new media forms are emerging every day. The Internet gives users the ability to search for and retrieve in seconds information about virtually any subject on earth, creating the opportunity to deliver advertising to people with a demonstrated interest in the product or service.But the digital world is constantly changing.
I. Introduction 3
II. Media planning 4
1. Traditional mass media 5
1.1 Nontraditional media 7 1.2Online media 7
1.3 Specialized media 8
1.4 General procedures in media planning 9
III. Problems in media planning 13
2. Insufficient media data 13
2.1 Time pressures 14
2.2 Institutional influence on media decisions 15
2.3 Lack of objectivity 15
2.4 Measuring advertising effectiveness 16
IV. The relationship among media, advertising, and
consumers 17 3. How consumers choose media: entertainment
and information 17
3.1 Strong feelings 17
3.2 Loyalty 17
3.3 Media usage and subsequent behavior 18
3.4 Interactive television 19
3.5 Varied relationships between audiences and media 19
3.6 Video consumer mapping study 20
3.7 How audiences process information from media 21
3.8 The media’s importance in the buying process 22
V. Conclusion 23
VI. Bibliography 24
Relationships between audiences and media run the gamut from casual to intense. When sports teams are playing, the reason for watching any game depends on the team’s chance of making the play-offs. If the team has a good chance, the audience will return each week with a sense of loyalty and anticipation for the game. Die-hard Chicago Cubs fans notwithstanding, if a team has a losing record, then the number of viewers will most likely drop because the relationship with the event is not as strong. Even if a vehicle has a large and interested audience, the numbers might not be the critical determination of its effect. Relationships today are not strong, especially among certain demographically defined audiences. For example, teenagers seem uninterested in reading newspapers, and all the techniques that have been used to attract them still have not changed the very loose relationship between the two.
Mass media today tend to be rejected by some media planners in favor of more specialized media with smaller, more selective audiences. Data from single-source research often indicate that small market segments account for a large proportion of sales. This is the Long Tail phenomenon referred to earlier. The relationship between audiences and media, however, is more important: If the relationship is smaller audiences will account for a large proportion of sales, although this requires purchasing advertising on a large number of vehicles. With the fragmentation of the television audience across more than 80 measured cable networks, advertisers with broad targets typically buy time on more than 20 cable channels in addition to buying the major broadcast nets.
In 2009, the Nielsen-funded Council for Research Excellence published the largest study to date that was specifically designed to provide a broad understanding of video media. The Video Consumer Mapping study4 is based on a 24-hour period of direct observation (in the person’s home, at work, in the car, etc.) using a specially designed portable computer where the observer recorded all media exposure in 10-second increments. The study was built on pioneering methodological research by Ball State University’s Center for Media Design, called the Middletown Media Studies.5
There were 10 key findings:
1. Although the composition of consumers’ screen media time varied across age groups, their total screen time was strikingly similar, except among those 45–54, whose screen time was highest.
2. The degree of concurrent screen media exposure (multitasking) was equivalent for all age groups under 55.
3. The study confirmed that more than 99 percent of Nielsen’s three-screen time is TV. Even among those 18–24, TV represented more than 98 percent.
4. Live TV leads all video time by a large margin, followed by DVD, with DVRs third.
5. The study suggests that computing has displaced radio as the number-two media activity. Radio is now number three, and print is number four.
6. New HDTV ownership (first and second set) led to higher TV exposure, though some of this increase appeared to be temporary.
7. Early DVR owners spent much more time with DVR playback than new DVR owners.
8. A higher percentage of TV time was spent as sole medium compared to computers, print, or audio. DVR playback time was even more likely than live TV to be a sole medium.
9. TV users were exposed to, on average, roughly an hour a day of live TV ads and promos.
10. Serious caution needs to be applied in interpreting self-reported data for media use. TV was substantially underreported, while online video and mobile video usage was overreported.
Much of the information received from media is stored in people’s short-term memory. Such information, like the last few words of a sentence just heard or read, or a telephone number found in an online search, can be recalled for only a short time. Advertisers have observed that audiences who want to remember some part of an advertising message can do so by spending time and effort in rehearsing the message. They can repeat it mentally until it is learned. Then the message is remembered longer, because it has been transferred to long-term memory.
The point is that media often do not do any more than deliver advertising to consumers. Media planners are sometimes called on to help consumers remember a message by buying media vehicles repeatedly within a given period. If audiences are not interested, they will not pay attention and the repetitions will be wasted. Audiences can be very selective in what they hear or see. Can a media planner do any more to deliver advertising messages? There is a widespread disagreement among media professionals about this question. Some say much can be done by strategic media planning. By careful media selection and timing, by placing ads in markets where sales opportunities are best, by repeating the advertising, and by other strategic activities, a planner can help the advertisers achieve their goals. Others say that a media planner’s job is done when the message is delivered to the right targets, at the right time, and in sufficient quantities. It is clear that media work with the creative message and the appeal of a product to get the message through to consumers. When the audience wants or needs a product for any reason, they tend to pay attention to an ad for that product. They may not notice an ad the first time it is broadcast or printed, but their attention will presumably alert them to find that ad inevitably. Audiences are not waiting for and to appear; however, creative effort can take ordinary ideas and dramatize them to such an extent that the audience will pay attention to the ad for a short time at least.
Audiences accept commercials as a necessary evil they must put up with to view free program content. However, the growth of DVRs and their ability to fast-forward through commercials shows that people will gladly avoid commercials if given the tool. Although estimates vary, there is agreement that more than 70 percent of the people watching a program via DVR playback skip through the commercials. On the national television venues of network broadcast, cable, and syndication (not local spot TV), this is accounted for in the C3 ratings that show the number of people watching a TV program and its commercials at normal speed live or within three days of telecast. Because of this metric, advertisers get what they are paying for and have avoided the dire consequences that were predicted when the DVR first came out.
It is assumed that the power of media advertising to influence sales depends on where in the purchasing process a consumer happens to be. The classic Engel/Kollat model of the buying process tells us that the order of purchasing is as follows:
1. Problem recognition—For example, an auto needs new tires, or an individual wants a new suit of clothes.
2. Search for alternatives to solve a problem—For example, a consumer reads, hears, or sees advertising; talks to a friend about the problem; or goes shopping for a product or brand.
3. Alternative evaluation of different brands—For example, a consumer has found two or three brands that could solve a problem. The consumer is deciding which one to choose.
4. Purchase made through a choice of a brand—This is the buying action.
5. Postpurchasing evaluation—After buying, the consumer evaluates whether the product and brand meets his or her expectations for solving the problem.
6. Feedback about how satisfying the purchase was—Unsatisfactory purchases can be returned, or the consumer might keep the product and look for confirmation that he or she made a good buying decision. Frustration about the quality of the purchase can result in anger against the brand or the store where the purchase was made. If consumers do not perceive that they have a problem, then presumably they will not react much to either media or advertising. On the other hand, when consumers do have a problem, they are receptive to both. Some problems are simple, such as finding that there is no ketchup in the house when hamburgers are being served. Others, such as buying a new home, are complex.
We would like to sum up the main points made above. As much as it is popular to talk about how media has changed or evolved, it is important to realize how much has remained the same—the basics and fundamentals of media planning still need to be practiced. It has never been more important to understand who your target audience is and then to properly implement the plan to reach them. Accurately translating the advertiser’s marketing objectives into the advertising message and then into the media objectives and strategy remains crucial.
While many new metrics for measuring media effectiveness have been proposed, such as the continued “fuzzy” metric of engagement, tools like reach (how many of your target has the opportunity to see your message) and frequency (how many times are they exposed) remain the best way to compare the impact of alternative plans. Reach and frequency and their building block, the gross rating point (GRP), are expected to survive in the new world of digital metrics, as are important concepts like audience composition and the value of a medium’s content. Digital media have learned from their traditional media forbearers the value of having commonly accepted, standard ways of defining and measuring advertising exposure. At first, the Web planners resisted standards; they wanted to talk about the improved metrics that the Web could provide.
Over time, the digital industry has come to realize that standards do not reduce the value of the new media. Instead, they bring comparability and order to the marketplace so that all are talking the same language and are on the same page. Efforts to standardize metrics are expected to continue through important organizations such as the Interactive Advertising Bureau (IAB), American Association of Advertising Agencies, the Media Rating Council (MRC), and many others. A budding media planner could do no better for his or her career than to get involved with these organizations as they work to develop standards. It not only represents a great learning opportunity, but also provides exposure to the leaders in the industry.
As a media planner and buyer, you will be responsible for ensuring that the substantial amounts of money you are entrusted with are properly spent and accounted for. Beyond that, you will come to understand the value of honesty and fair dealing as you work with your client, your coworkers, and the media sales representatives.